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Georgi Kechaari

Udi, considered as one of ancient ethnos of Azerbaijan, as well as in other areas, the customs and traditions have managed saving up to now in family - household areas. Evident to a volume acknowledgement preparation and carrying out wedding the celebrations, playing the important role in home life. About wedding celebrations Udi set of authors distances interesting information. The known historian - ethnographer, the doctor of historical sciences Rauf Husseynoff in the descriptions, it is high value as a new stage in Alban logy, (the monograph " Udi " publishing house " Azerbaijan " of 1996, Publishing house " Science " of 1999) deserves special attention. The monographs is directed on research of two- communities (Nidsh and Oguz). Submitted to attention of readers this book gives an explanation to supervision of the author above family - household ceremonies and their interpretation.
1Tie actions directed on creation of family Udi it is possible to divide into 5 stages: 1. A choice of the girl. 2. The announcement to parents of the future bride about the choice. 3. A small betrothal. 4. The big betrothal. 5. Wedding.

All of these number lasts some months, sometimes about the whole year.

Sisters of the young man, the aunt participate in a choice of the girl basically, and about knowing are not distributed, conduct the job. At this time in a basis are pawned a number of requirements. The future bride should be able to bake bread in tendir (oven), to cook 5-6 kinds of dinners, to
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prepare for tea, to milk buffalo and to prepare various products from milk, to raise cocoons of a mulberry, to erase linen, to clear a fine nut, to spend fme repair of clothes.

One condition should be certainly executed - by ancient tradition, is presented at Udi, it is impossible to give out the daughter for relatives.
Active participation in a choice of the girl play kum and his wife. At Udi the kum -godfather does not vary, and passes from generation to generation. To the grandfather - grandfather, the father - father, the grandson - grandson become God. All family successes of the marrying young man rejoined with a name kum, he and his family are worthy the highest respect. It is strictly forbidden to get as a bride the daughter to family kum, and to take as wife the girl from family kum.

After it was defined, who will be the bride and the consent is received, action “the Announcement of a name of the bride " is spent: on custom Sunday evening father of the young man, the uncle, kum and one of aksakals (old, clever people) go to the house of the girl. Take with itself a jug fault, the cooked chicken and, on custom, one apple. In the house of the girl of them meet the uncle of the girl, the senior sister and sisters. If there is at her a husband. By tradition to drink the wine brought from a house of the young man, it is considered an attribute of the consent. The brought apple is given to the future bride. She. having cut an apple on two picas, eats one itself, and the second for that, her that have given the young man, returns going(gathered). This custom - a tribute of an antiquity and on the moral aspects is of interest.

• After ceremony "Rhozamandliq" - “ the Announcement

of a name the bride already is considered almost a member in new family, her honour and advantage are strong preserved.
"Rhozamandliq" - “ the Small betrothal ” - after a while after courtship, is spent on Sunday, or on Monday. From each side there is a minimum 10, a maximum 15-20 person. The celebration spends kum. Women on the part of the young man bring trays with sweets and fruit with which treat present. Gifts, accompanied by 1-2 person, present the girl. Then celebrations proceed.
After a small betrothal ceremony “Goy aksum” - “ Shows of a house ”, after a while, is spent. Women on the part of the bride get acquainted with domestic conditions of the future son-in-law, what jobs should be carried out to the bride and inform family of the bride that subsequently there was no disagreement and discontent. In creation of family and carrying out of celebrations the big role plays "Kalanishan" - “ the Big betrothal ”. It is spent in the autumn, after end of economic jobs. Relatives, the neighbors familiar, friends are invited to this celebration. It. basically, is spent on Sundays at night at 3-4 o'clock, in a court yard of the bride. On the part of family of the young man bring w ith itself trays with sweets and fruit. People on the part of the girl with themselves do not bring anything.
People on the part of the young man and girls take seats in different numbers,_they are served with beforehand chosen people. Women from both sides bring tea. As a rule, to men tea does not move. After a while, for carrying out of a betrothal the bride is resulted by her senior sister, the wife of the brother and the girlfriend. As a rule, tire dissolved women or at whom

husbands have died cannot accompany with the bride, or for any reasons the family is destroyed. In the beginning the bride is resulted to worth with kums to the groom. The groom dresses a ring on a finger of the bride, and then kum presents her gifts. Then the bride in support bypasses numbers sitting relatives the groom. Basically men give to the bride gold rings, a gold and usual wrist watch. On a condition, only the groom has the right to dress a ring on a finger of the bride, kum and father of the groom can dress hours on a hand of the bride. Other gifts are represented under the list to family of the bride.
The women who have brought with self a fabric, scarf, shawl, a dress, blouses throw them on a head of the bride. After distribution of gifts, service going begins.

The different sweets, the prepared houses of sweet, halvah are displayed on the brought trays and including known Sheki halvah, a jug with wine, a bottle of vodka, the cooked chicken. For participants the following dishes prepare: traditional for Udi oven bread, cheese, different salads, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, a cooked bird, egg salad, cooked chestnuts, dolma (the meat is prepared from the grapes leaves and meat), cooked meat and traditional plov (rice and meat). If the family in day of a betrothal has decided to bring sacrifice on it it is informed present and meat is distributed.
It is important to note following the moment. Udi - Christians and, as a rule, plant swine eat pork. However, in a * kind of that Udi within long centuries lived among attendants of an islam, communicated with them on mass celebrations - on betrothals, on weddings, and in particular on funeral, never use pork.

During a betrothal, after submission on tables of meal, over action supervises aksakals (old. clever people) on the part of the groom. Toasts for health of two young, for fathers and mothers, the matchmaker, aksakals are proclaimed, youth, children, those who for whatever reasons does not participate on a betrothal, those who has enclosed the work, and for health of women the separate toast is said. However, force nobody to binge. That is why. in spite of the fact that in campaigns Udi wine and vodka is drunk hundreds liters, never it happens rough tricks and obstinacies. It because everyone knows the norm and strictly to it adheres. Intoxication on wedding is considered at Udi a shame. On weddings and funeral Udi use only the alcoholic drinks made by them. They prepare for vodka from a cherry plum, plums, juice a grapes. Wine is produced from local grades of grapes ” Shalo " " Figombal ", nothing adding. It is interesting, that the woman cannot be present at manufacturing fault, but are present at manufacturing vodka.
Speaking about the big betrothal, we shall note one fact. At this ceremony musicians are not present. It because in continuation of all betrothal are spent a number of ceremonies, and music, dances can prevent them. After the big betrothal, after a while, again in the house of the girl with participation of women brocade baton " - " a cut of a fabric " is spent so-called ”. For the bride кроится a dress, other ornaments prepare also. In the past, brides in day of wedding put on in a special dress. Then it became longer, in particular white color or light blue. Footwear national leather or there " ere shoes
Wedding in home life and a life was considered as exclusive event. In marriage each family tried to spend amarriage of the son or delivery of the daughter as national festival and did not look at it as on a source of the income. Certainly, close relatives and neighbors took part in these preparations. Also render the feasible help. However, for Udi gathering money with come on weddings, conducting the list offered - it is alien. In all families, having finished internal preparation, some days prior to wedding both in the house of the groom, and in the house of the bride “ wedding councils ” are spent. On custom, on actions spent in the evenings neighbors, family kum, friends to the groom (the girlfriend of the bride), servants, cooks, bakers are invited native.
First of all the list invited on wedding here appears, make additional amendments. Then the amount of products is specified, distribution of duties is spent. These duties consist in the following: the head of wedding, 1 -2 his assistants, cooks, group of women on baking the bread, crucial by estimation of the charge of products, group of the youth, borrowed provide with convocation of the invited, 1 -2 young men the invitation of musicians. Here are known musicians who will play wedding.
As a rule, on weddings Udi the four (зурначей) plays musicians: зурначи, zumachi (person into plays breath musical instruments), trumpeter and trumpeter, playing on breath tools. Has not become fashionable to sing songs, the invitation ашуга. Participants can dance only.
There is one more tradition connected to musicians. If the musician who played wedding of the father and mother the same musician is necessarily invited to wedding of the son or the daughter with the group is alive. Not only on wedding of the father and the son. but also the grandfather - three

generations - very known musicians played village Nurturer , Markara. At the end of discussions the specified list is , distributed to young men. To wedding are invited, bypassing each house. Invitation cards are not made, to invite on road, a workplace it is considered uncivilized. Earlier for these purposes packs of tea and sweet were used.
All family is invited entirely. Next day after discussion thorough preparation for wedding begins. People are notified, the stock, the equipment is going to. By tradition, this very day the groom together with several friends visits a sacied place of worship of parents and puts there candles.
Before wedding the side of the groom sends the coordinated amount of products. In olden time and dowry it was sent before wedding. It приданое, named "is sickly", has consisted in the majority of beautifully decorated chest, the complete set of blankets and the mattresses, the certain amount of utensils. It was fashionable to give in olden time as given телку, a small manual mill, a trough for the test.
As a rule, wedding was spent on Sunday or Monday. As agreed upon sounds zumachi (person into plays breath musical instruments) in the beginning should sound from a house of the groom. All current of wedding, short of a number of distinctions, equally. In both court yard in 4-5 evenings dances of members of family and relatives begin. For musicians and people beforehand prepare for benches and a platform for dances. On weddings Udi. as a rule, dances carry collective character. And now 10-15 and more person, in most cases, takes part in dances It in many cases people of different age. (lie first day of wedding is devoted to dances and to participants to eat does not move. Dances by turns cope selected for this purpose young people. A melody for dances define(determine) dancing. In the past dancing during their dance that money allowed so-called " shabash (mo-tey what is given to he musicians doting hue wedding party by he people Јшабаш’. As a rule, fine denominations got to musicians, and denominations in 25, 50 and 100 rubies came back that who distributed them. It broke a rhythm, displeased. During last period musicians received a payment from reserved this or that dance and "шабаш" have been cancelled.

It is necessary to note, that wedding in both court yard finds by an identical rule. In a court yard of the bride danced
• girls, in a court yard of the groom - young man.

When in the evening before the ending of wedding there were 1-2 hours, the groom with close comrades and girls was sent in a court card to the bride for joint dance of the groom and the bride. The side of the bride while come will not execute the mission, had no right to finish wedding.
As a rule, wedding in the first day proceeds up to 1-2 o'clock in the morning. Wedding comes to the end with execution of melody " Tarkhama (messing hums)". Are executed on wedding basically Azerbaijan dancing melodies. Alongside with them dancing music is executed also Udi.
Next day, the basic early in the morning begins and the closing stage of wedding. Cooks, servants perform the job. Musicians start to the to duties at 10-11 o'clock. Some time later in the house of the groom begins party which is called baybesun " i.e. preparation of the groom. For this purpose at
* ton of one of trees hang up a skull named "dragon". According to belief, malicious spirits can harm the groom. The groom, the barber and other participants start a ceremony of shaving.

Young men begin shooting which proceeds until the skull will not be destroyed and will not fall to the ground. The one who has made it, is awarded with a gift. According to belief, destruction of a dragon rescues the groom from malicious forces.

It is interesting, that immortal Azerbaijan national poet Samed Vurgim in 1951 has taken part in wedding Udi also the neat shooting has brought down a skull, having received for it a gift.

The groom under supervision kum puts on and prepares then with group of people is sent in a way for the bride. Into this group led by the groom and kums enter his father, the uncle, friends and some girls from make related the groom. They beforehand define a type of transport on which will go for the bride.
When people leave from a court yard, mother of the groom, his sisters pour water behind them and put a nut that the envious person has not thrown him following a stone. It is considered a sin to block a way going for the bride. Enter a court yard of the bride, it is necessary to bring in compensation and under the invitation of the father and mother of the bride to pass in a court yard and to sit on the specified places. Only after that to come people bring meat. It is natural, that this process begins with bread. On weddings, betrothals bread is displayed by pair amount, for example 2-4-6. and on mourning actions - m odd amount (1-3-5). Besides on wedding bread is displayed try the head part in a direction of rising, on mourning actions - aside a decline After bread on a table nut salt, then cheese, and a trace the others meat. In this question there is no difference in weddings - the groom or the bride. In most cases

in a court yard of the bride wedding passes better. People which have arrived for the bride, after a meal are going to on a ladder; kum. the groom, people close to him, rising upward, approach ;o a door of a room where there is a bride in a veil. On a call of people father of the bride approaches to them and having taken for hands the daughter, deduces her outside, submits her hand to the groom and speaks the following words: - “ I Charge with the daughter to you. and you - to Allah ". It is the most solemn ceremony meet an applause. After with the bride have charged the groom, people come with the groom, it is a little having danced, come back in the house of the groom.

Rule such, that when carry the bride to the right of the groom the bride sits, at the left - kum, to the right of the bride - the woman accompanying her in the first marriage night. To the right of her the younger brother of the bride or one of sons of her relatives sits. In hands of that woman a burning lamp, as a symbol of light which the bride brings in the house of the groom. lire marked rule is observed up to an entrance in a court yard of the groom.
It is not supposed, that between the groom and the bride, between the groom and kums, between the bride and the woman who has arrived with her, someone passed. It is very fashionable to stop a vehicle, a phaeton, subsequently the machine w ith the purpose of compensation. When the group leaves from a court yard of the bride the head of group should not forget about the invitation to wedding of people from a court yard of the bride. After wires of the bride in the house of the bride w'edding is considered completed. However, if to people have not submitted yet a boiled rice it is impossible to rise because of a table. This requirement concerns and to the house of the groom. In both cases porridge of the first moves to women, then men.
When the group drives to a court yard of the groom, she is met by musicians and mother of the groom. People take seat for tables. When all уселись the women who have brought w ith self trays with gifts, put them on a table, before the groom and the bride. They cover a head of the bride with fabrics and scarf s. And sweets are distributed to people.

Soon in a court yard of the groom there is a group of women and men on the part of the bride and matchmakers take seat on the places selected with him. According to tradition after arrival of matchmakers the bride together with the woman accompanying her during a marriage life, conduct i:i her room. However before it the groom and the bride should execute benevolent mission. For use by people fault they should open the big clay jug. Sometimes the uncle of the groom, close neighbors also open jugs.

One more custom is interesting during carrying out of wedding. After father of the groom, mother, the uncle will be spread out on tables of matchmakers meat, gray-haired relatives, each of them carries in hands of 2 or 4 bread and approach to them. That bread to divide, men submit to his men, and women - to women. Bread available on hands shares between matchmakers. It is necessary to eat the tom off piece of bread. ITtus likeness is fixed, considered as the most sacred - bread. This custom has especial value if it is carried out on the area, before going.
In цепега!. on weddings L!di all occurs before in w'eight People, to their participation. It even more raises the responsibility of the future family. Among members of a community divorces are very rare, it testifies that above the described custom here is observed. Also traditionally it among Udi there is no custom of theft of girls. According to belief, the guy who steals the girl and the girl who ran with him. insult all people. There is at the groom one more mission at cairying out of wedding. He should serve personally the mother-in-law and Father in low (wife's there).
On custom, after submission of porridge by all with meat present can rise because of a table. Women in group of new matchmakers necessarily should meet the bride and give her blessing.
After end of wedding kum it is sent with the groom in the house where the groom should spend the night. The woman who accompanies with the bride in the first marriage night, remains with her. The bride only next day is entrusted to the groom.
This very day in the evening the woman who was with the bride, send back. After a while the groom invites kum to itself home. Here to him render special respect, with gifts send back.
In the evening when everyone is sent on the place, mother of the groom sees off him in a room of the bride, blessing him. The most wedding celebrations are completed by it. However, it is necessary to note two moments.
For the morning, after "meeting" of the groom with the bride, one of elderly women of a house, usually mother, should leam about virginity of the bride and about it to inform her parents. With this purpose, having poured in a jug wine (then m bottle of vodka) having tied with a neck a red tape, sends
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him in the house of the bride. Having accepted a jug, parents of the bride pass a congratulation to the side of the groom.
At last, in a week after "meeting" in the house of the groom there comes group of women on the part of the bride. Having familiarized with " spot's " clothes of the bride, they erase her. To wash a head this is called action which plays the big educational and traditional role. It because the bride sent in the house of the groom, appeared the virgin and it is shown to women of both sides.


Baku, 2003

Library of President of Azerbaijan Republic

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